Information travels through the brain along special cells called neurons. Each part of the neuron has an important role. Dendrites, the “hairs” surrounding the cell body, receive information. The cell body combines information from different dendrites. The long, tail-like axon moves the message along. Information “jumps” to the next neuron from the axon terminals.
It takes both electrical and chemical signals for your brain to send and receive information. First, chemicals called neurotransmitters “carry” incoming messages across the gap between two neurons. This rush of chemicals triggers the receiving neuron to fire off an electrical signal that moves the message along the cell. Neurotransmitters at the end of the neuron then pass the message on to the next cell.
Every time you learn something, you form connections between neurons. Over time, important neural connections strengthen, while less-used pathways fade away. We create new neurons and new pathways between neurons throughout our lives.